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Broadcom Modernizes Machine Learning and Anomaly Detection with ksqlDB

Mainframes are still ubiquitous, used for almost every financial transaction around the world—credit card transactions, billing, payroll, etc. You might think that working on mainframe software would be dull, requiring us to use only old languages and tools, but our experience has been just the opposite. Since joining the mainframe division at Broadcom, we’ve had the opportunity to work with many newer technologies, including Kafka, ksqlDB, Apache Cassandra™, graph databases, Docker, machine learning, and others. Our product, Mainframe Operational Intelligence (MOI), is a collection of services that collects performance and health metrics from various products running on mainframes. This helps customers detect and diagnose mainframe issues.

Products running on mainframes can easily generate more than a million metrics per minute. Obviously, most metric values can vary a great deal. Sometimes the variability is caused by expected events, such as increased transactions at Christmastime or employees arriving at work in the morning. Sometimes it’s caused by predictable one-off events, such as tickets going on sale for a concert. And sometimes it’s caused by unpredictable yet still very normal events. For example, somebody might run an ad hoc report that causes a spike in database reads. Filtering out the noise and detecting only meaningful issues are a major challenge.

With MOI, we are working on reducing false positives in this filtering by improving anomaly detection, as well as developing a system that supports customized alarm filtering. We wanted to see whether we could use ksqlDB as the filtering tool, so we built a prototype to try it out.

Overview of MOI

MOI consists of several microservices that work in series. These microservices communicate over Apache Kafka® and use Confluent Schema Registry to manage the Apache Avro™ schemas.

Each microservice has a unique Kafka topic and only consumes messages from that topic. After consuming a message, the microservice then produces a message to send to the next service in the series. Each service’s metrics have a single Avro schema.

Our ksqlDB prototype involves three MOI services:

  1. Metric Enrichment Service: an upstream service ingests metrics from the mainframe and sends each raw Avro metric to the Metric Enrichment Service, which fills in additional information in the message
  2. Machine Learning Service: the Machine Learning Service analyzes the enriched metric message, scoring the information and setting a flag to indicate whether the metric is in an alert state
  3. Alarm Lifecycle Management Service: the Alarm Lifecycle Management Service checks the flag, determining whether an alert state indicates an existing or new incident; if there is no alert state, it closes any appropriate existing incident

Metric Enrichment Service | Machine Learning Service | Alarm Lifecycle Management Service

Each message in MOI represents a single time series observation of a specific metric instance at a particular point in time. The metric message includes several types of information, indicating:

  • Metric type and unit of measurement (e.g. percentage of CPU usage)
  • Instance information identifying the specific component being measured (e.g. the specific CPU)
  • Metric value and the observation time

MOI’s metric Avro format is complex, with multiple substructures. One of the substructures, MetricSource, contains the observation data, including the value of the metric and the time at which the value was measured. (The other substructures aren’t relevant to this discussion.)

The prototype

We wanted the prototype to demonstrate that ksqlDB can be used to create metric filters. To do this, we needed to show that we could base filter rules on a combination of metric instance information, values, and types.

The prototype inserts a ksqlDB server between the Machine Learning Service and the Alarm Lifecycle Management Service. ksqlDB filters then the alert flag. The filters are based on metric values for one or more metric instances.

Metric Filters – Metric Enrichment Service | Machine Learning Service | Alarm Lifecycle Management Service

Our goal was to modify the current implementation as little as possible, only making changes that helped define rule conditions. We modified the Metric Enrichment Service to make some of the properties easier to use in ksqlDB. The Machine Learning Service publishes metrics to a new Kafka topic, called ALERT_FILTERING, which the ksqlDB server consumes. We also adapted the Alarm Lifecycle Management service to receive the Avro metric messages from the ksqlDB server, to translate those messages back to the original schema used by both the Alarm Lifecycle Management Service and downstream services (we’ll also discuss this more later on).

Installing ksqldb-server to MOI – A great first impression!

Each service in MOI runs inside its own Docker container. A MOI tool looks for docker-compose files in a particular directory structure and starts or stops the relevant containers.

We downloaded the ksqlDB Docker configuration and modified the docker-compose.yml file to point to MOI’s Schema Registry. Then we placed the file in the proper directory and restarted the MOI system. Less than 10 minutes after the download, we had the ksqldb-server and ksqldb-cli containers running in MOI! So often solution providers assert, “It’s so easy!” in this case, it’s true!

Creating the first stream

ksqlDB uses time to manage windowing information. By default, it uses the time set by the Kafka broker. However, ksqlDB has a very nice feature that lets the developer override the default and use the WITH clause to specify a domain time from the message. This is particularly useful for MOI, especially since, MOI may process metrics that have been delayed for days or even months.

To create a stream, our first step is to use the proper time field:

CREATE STREAM metrics_stream WITH (
kafka_topic = 'ALARM_FILTERING',
value_format = 'AVRO',
value_avro_schema_full_name = 'com.ca.oi.engine.common.avro.Metric',
timestamp = 'time');

Message        
----------------
 Stream created 
----------------

Selecting metric instances

The next step is to create new streams for specific metric instances. allowing us to create filters to support the many rules MOI requires. We can create a stream by adding a new field, rule, to contain the name of the rule. The rule name is used to join the streams when creating the actual filter rule.

Below, we create two streams for an example rule called fred, where each stream contains metrics for a single metric instance:

CREATE STREAM metric1 AS
    SELECT *, 'fred' AS rule
    FROM metrics_stream
    WHERE MetricSource->category='Type74Subtype1DeviceDataSectionVolumeSerialNumber' AND
          MetricSource->subSystemValue='PSG119' AND MetricSource->metricClass='DCTAVG_VOLSER'
    PARTITION BY rule;

CREATE STREAM metric2 AS
    SELECT *, 'fred' AS rule
    FROM metrics_stream
    WHERE MetricSource->category='Type74Subtype1DeviceDataSectionVolumeSerialNumber' AND
    MetricSource->subSystemValue='PSG119' AND MetricSource->metricClass='DART_VOLSER'
    PARTITION BY rule;

Finally, the filter rules

Now that we have a stream for two different metric instances, we can create a filter rule. The prototype rule is a toy example—it sets the alert field to 1 if the metric values in the metric1 and metric2 streams are each greater than 0. (Since both metrics come from the same product, they have the same time value.)

The metric value happens to be stored as a string, so we need to cast it to a double. In the ksqlDB statement below, OI-EVENTS.0 is the name of the topic consumed by the Alarm Lifecycle Management Service:

CREATE STREAM metric1_alerts WITH (
    kafka_topic = 'OI-EVENTS.0',
    value_format = 'AVRO',
    value_avro_schema_full_name = 'com.ca.oi.engine.common.avro.MetricKSQL'
)   AS
    SELECT
    metric1.metricId        AS metricId,
    metric1.groupId         AS groupId,
    metric1.product         AS product,
    metric1.productVersion  AS productVersion,
    metric1.version         AS version,
    metric1.documentId      AS documentId,
    metric1.MetricSource    AS MetricSource,
    metric1.GreenHighway    AS GreenHighway,
    metric1.IncidentEvent   AS IncidentEvent,
    metric1.Notifier        AS Notifier,
    metric1.isPartOfCluster AS isPartOfCluster,
    metric1.metricPath      AS metricPath,
    metric1.lastState       AS lastState,
    metric1.time            AS time,
    CASE 
       WHEN CAST(metric1.MetricSource->metricValue AS DOUBLE) > 0.0 AND
            CAST(metric2.MetricSource->metricValue AS DOUBLE) > 0.0 THEN 1
       ELSE 0
    END                     AS alert
FROM metric1
INNER JOIN metric2
WITHIN 5 MINUTES
ON metric1.rule = metric2.rule;

The Alarm Lifecycle Management Service needs to see all of the metrics, not just the metrics impacted by the filter. So we need to create an additional rule stream publishing to the OI-EVENTS.0 topic. This stream passes on those metrics:

CREATE STREAM other_metrics WITH (
    kafka_topic = 'OI-EVENTS.0',
    value_format = 'AVRO',
    value_avro_schema_full_name = 'com.ca.oi.engine.common.avro.MetricKSQL'
)   AS
    SELECT * FROM metrics_stream
    WHERE (NOT (MetricSource->category='Type74Subtype1DeviceDataSectionVolumeSerialNumber' AND
                MetricSource->subSystemValue='PSG119' AND
                MetricSource->metricClass='DCTAVG_VOLSER'
          )
    );

And we’re done, right? Well, there is a little bit of magic in these queries. Notice the schema specification in the WITH clause:

value_avro_schema_full_name = 'com.ca.oi.engine.common.avro.MetricKSQL'

This is different from the schema used by the original metrics_stream:

value_avro_schema_full_name = 'com.ca.oi.engine.common.avro.Metric'

This com.ca.oi.engine.common.avro.Metric schema is what the MOI services expect. So why the new schema? There are two reasons, one less obvious than the other.

The first reason is that the ksqlDB producer creates a schema with all of the field names capitalized—MOI’s schema uses camel casing. For example, ksqlDB changes the MetricSource substructure name in MOI’s schema to METRICSOURCE, and it changes the time field to TIME.

The second and more subtle reason is that the MetricSource substructure in MOI’s schema contains a field of type map. Avro maps, unlike ksqlDB, do not support nullable keys. To work around this, ksqlDB changes a map in an Avro schema to an array of key-value pairs. (For a detailed discussion about this, see the ksqlDB FAQ.)

One solution to the first issue—the difference in casing—doesn’t require any coding. When creating the streams, we can specify the field names with the correct casing:

CREATE STREAM foo (
    `id` VARCHAR,
    `value` VARCHAR
) WITH (
    kafka_topic = 'foo',
    value_format = 'AVRO'
);

But MOI uses a large and complex schema, so this would be tedious and error prone. It also wouldn’t solve the second issue about maps being converted to arrays.

The solution for us is to retrieve the ksqlDB schema from MOI’s Schema Registry:

curl --silent -X GET http://confluent:8081/subjects/OI-EVENTS.0-value/versions/latest

MOI’s build process uses Apache Maven (by way of the Avro Maven plugin) to generate Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs) from the .avsc Avro schema files used by all MOI services. Using the retrieved schema, we create a new MetricKSQL.avsc, then add it into the build process to generate a MetricKSQL.java POJO. We’ve modified the Alarm Lifecycle Manager Service’s Kafka consumer to use this new POJO. Then we just implement the code to translate from the new POJO to the original POJO. (We did open ksqlDB issue #4147 for a compatibility mode that would simplify integration into existing schemas.)

With these changes in place, everything works!

Conclusion

We haven’t made a final decision yet, but our investigation shows that ksqlDB is a viable option for creating and supporting filters in MOI. ksqlDB provides a familiar SQL-like language for defining filter rules using Kafka Streams. It is surprisingly easy to install and integrate with our product. In addition, there are readily available resources for learning ksqlDB and Kafka Streams, and in our experience, the Confluent community is amazingly helpful and responsive.

Jim Hunter has over 40 years of experience in software development. He started out as a programmer at Eli Lilly During his employment at Lilly’s, Jim returned to college and completed his bachelor’s degree in computer science at Purdue University. Later when he joined Hewlett-Packard (HP), his first assignment was working on the first TCP implementation for HP-UX. This transitioned into working on network monitoring products. He then accepted a position in data management for CAD products at CoCreate, a wholly owned HP subsidiary, which spun off and was later acquired by PTC. In 2013, I returned to the monitoring world, joining the Nimsoft team, where he eventually began working on the mainframe monitoring product called Mainframe Operational Intelligence.

Suresh Raghavan is a seasoned full stack Java developer with over 18 years of experience developing highly available, scalable web applications across the Java/JEE stack. He is an expert in designing and developing enterprise-level systems using RESTful APIs, Spring Boot, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Docker, Kafka, Cassandra, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, AngularJS, and other technologies. He also has significant experience in auto loans, finance (banking), risk management, logistics, web/internet, and e-commerce. As a staff software engineer at Broadcom, he works on the Kafka Streams based microservice applications for Mainframe Operational Intelligence.

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